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Pacing strategy in schoolchildren differs with age and cognitive development

Micklewright, D and Angus, C and Suddaby, J and St Clair Gibson, A and Sandercock, G and Chinnasamy, C (2012) 'Pacing strategy in schoolchildren differs with age and cognitive development.' Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 44 (2). 362 - 369. ISSN 0195-9131

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Abstract

Purpose: The study's purpose was to examine differences in pacing strategy between schoolchildren of different age, gender, and stage of cognitive development. Methods: Schoolchildren (n = 106) from four age groups (5-6, 8-9, 11-12, and 14 yr) participated in this study. Each schoolchild completed four conservation tasks to evaluate his or her Piagetian stage of cognitive development. Each schoolchild then performed a best-effort running task on a 150-m running track that was video recorded to analyze pace at 5% increments. The length of the run was varied for each age group to ensure that all schoolchildren were running for approximately 4 min (5-6 yr = 450 m, 8-9 yr = 600 m, 11-12 yr = 750 m, and 14 yr = 900 m). Results: Differences in pacing strategy were found between schoolchildren of different age (P < 0.0001), gender (P < 0.0001), and cognitive development (P < 0.0001). Pacing differences were also found between age groups after controlling for cognitive development (P < 0.001), between cognitive abilities after controlling for age (P < 0.01), and between genders after controlling for both age (P < 0.0001) and cognitive ability (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Younger schoolchildren with less advanced cognitive development exhibited a negative pacing strategy indicating an inability to anticipate exercise demand. Older schoolchildren at a more advanced stage of cognitive development exhibited a more conservative U-shaped pacing strategy characterized by faster running speeds during the first 15% and last 20% of the run. Anticipatory pacing strategy seems to be related to both the age and cognitive development of schoolchildren. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Sports Medicine.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: R Medicine > RC Internal medicine > RC1200 Sports Medicine
R Medicine > RJ Pediatrics > RJ101 Child Health. Child health services
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Health > Sport, Rehabilitation and Exercise Sciences, School of
Depositing User: Jim Jamieson
Date Deposited: 10 Nov 2011 12:29
Last Modified: 04 Feb 2019 11:16
URI: http://repository.essex.ac.uk/id/eprint/1306

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