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Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate: A Mendelian Randomization Meta-Analysis in the CARTA Consortium

Linneberg, A and Jacobsen, RK and Skaaby, T and Taylor, AE and Fluharty, ME and Jeppesen, JL and Bjorngaard, JH and Åsvold, BO and Gabrielsen, ME and Campbell, A and Marioni, RE and Kumari, M and Marques-Vidal, P and Kaakinen, M and Cavadino, A and Postmus, I and Ahluwalia, TS and Wannamethee, SG and Lahti, J and Raikkonen, K and Palotie, A and Wong, A and Dalgård, C and Ford, I and Ben-Shlomo, Y and Christiansen, L and Kyvik, KO and Kuh, D and Eriksson, JG and Whincup, PH and Mbarek, H and De Geus, EJC and Vink, JM and Boomsma, DI and Smith, GD and Lawlor, DA and Kisialiou, A and McConnachie, A and Padmanabhan, S and Jukema, JW and Power, C and Hypponen, E and Preisig, M and Waeber, G and Vollenweider, P and Korhonen, T and Laatikainen, T and Salomaa, V and Kaprio, J and Kivimaki, M and Smith, BH and Hayward, C and Sørensen, TIA and Thuesen, BH and Sattar, N and Morris, RW and Romundstad, PR and Munafò, MR and Jarvelin, MR and Husemoen, LLN (2015) 'Effect of Smoking on Blood Pressure and Resting Heart Rate: A Mendelian Randomization Meta-Analysis in the CARTA Consortium.' Circulation: Cardiovascular Genetics, 8 (6). 832 - 841. ISSN 1942-325X

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Abstract

© 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Background-Smoking is an important cardiovascular disease risk factor, but the mechanisms linking smoking to blood pressure are poorly understood. Methods and Results-Data on 141 317 participants (62 666 never, 40 669 former, 37 982 current smokers) from 23 population-based studies were included in observational and Mendelian randomization meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with systolic and diastolic blood pressure, hypertension, and resting heart rate. For the Mendelian randomization analyses, a genetic variant rs16969968/rs1051730 was used as a proxy for smoking heaviness in current smokers. In observational analyses, current as compared with never smoking was associated with lower systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure and lower hypertension risk, but with higher resting heart rate. In observational analyses among current smokers, 1 cigarette/day higher level of smoking heaviness was associated with higher (0.21 bpm; 95% confidence interval 0.19; 0.24) resting heart rate and slightly higher diastolic blood pressure (0.05 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.08) and systolic blood pressure (0.08 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval 0.03; 0.13). However, in Mendelian randomization analyses among current smokers, although each smoking increasing allele of rs16969968/rs1051730 was associated with higher resting heart rate (0.36 bpm/allele; 95% confidence interval 0.18; 0.54), there was no strong association with diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, or hypertension. This would suggest a 7 bpm higher heart rate in those who smoke 20 cigarettes/day. Conclusions-This Mendelian randomization meta-analysis supports a causal association of smoking heaviness with higher level of resting heart rate, but not with blood pressure. These findings suggest that part of the cardiovascular risk of smoking may operate through increasing resting heart rate.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
R Medicine > RA Public aspects of medicine > RA0421 Public health. Hygiene. Preventive Medicine
Divisions: Faculty of Social Sciences > Institute for Social and Economic Research
Depositing User: Jim Jamieson
Date Deposited: 12 Feb 2016 12:09
Last Modified: 17 Aug 2017 17:29
URI: http://repository.essex.ac.uk/id/eprint/15795

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