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The Effect of Manipulating Individual Consequences and Training Demands on Experiences of Pressure With Elite Disability Shooters

Stoker, Mike and Maynard, Ian and Butt, Joanne and Hays, Kate and Hughes, Paul (2019) 'The Effect of Manipulating Individual Consequences and Training Demands on Experiences of Pressure With Elite Disability Shooters.' Sport Psychologist, 33 (3). 221 - 227. ISSN 0888-4781

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Abstract

In previous research, multiple demands and consequences were manipulated simultaneously to examine methods for pressure training. Building on literature, in this study a single demand or consequence stressor was manipulated in isolation. Specifically, in a matched within-subject design, 6 international shooters (mean age 28.67 yr) performed a shooting task while exposed to a single demand (task, performer, environmental) or consequence (reward, forfeit, judgment) stressor. Perceived pressure, anxiety (intensity and direction), and performance were measured. Compared with baseline, manipulating demands did not affect pressure or anxiety. In contrast, pressure and cognitive anxiety significantly increased when judgment or forfeit consequence stressors were introduced. Thus, the findings lack support for manipulating demands but strongly support introducing consequences when pressure training. Compared with baseline, the judgment stressor also created debilitative anxiety. Hence, in terms of introducing a single stressor, judgment appeared most impactful and may be most effective for certain athlete populations.

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Health > Sport, Rehabilitation and Exercise Sciences, School of
Depositing User: Elements
Date Deposited: 19 Nov 2019 18:38
Last Modified: 06 Jan 2020 14:15
URI: http://repository.essex.ac.uk/id/eprint/25648

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