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Viewport-Aware Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach for 360º Video Caching

Maniotis, Panteils and Thomos, Nikolaos (2021) 'Viewport-Aware Deep Reinforcement Learning Approach for 360º Video Caching.' IEEE Transactions on Multimedia, 24. pp. 386-399. ISSN 1520-9210

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360º video is an essential component of VR/AR/MR systems that provides immersive experience to the users. However, 360º video is associated with high bandwidth requirements. The required bandwidth can be reduced by exploiting the fact that users are interested in viewing only a part of the video scene and that users request viewports that overlap with each other. Motivated by the findings of our recent works where the benefits of caching video tiles at edge servers instead of caching entire 360º videos were shown, in this paper, we introduce the concept of virtual viewports that have the same number of tiles with the original viewports. The tiles forming these viewports are the most popular ones for each video and are determined by the users' requests. Then, we propose a proactive caching scheme that assumes unknown videos' and viewports' popularity. Our scheme determines which videos to cache as well as which is the optimal virtual viewport per video. Virtual viewports permit to lower the dimensionality of the cache optimization problem. To solve the problem, we first formulate the content placement of 360º videos in edge cache networks as a Markov Decision Process (MDP), and then we determine the optimal caching placement using the Deep Q-Network (DQN) algorithm. The proposed solution aims at maximizing the overall quality of the 360º videos delivered to the end-users by caching the most popular 360º videos at base quality along with a virtual viewport in high quality. We extensively evaluate the performance of the proposed system and compare it with that of known systems such as Least Frequently Used (LFU), Least Recently Used (LRU), First-In-First-Out (FIFO), over both synthetic and real 360º video traces. The results reveal the large benefits coming from proactive caching of virtual viewports instead of the original ones in terms of the overall quality of the rendered viewports, the cache hit ratio, and the servicing cost.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Deep reinforcement learning; 360° video; tileencoding; viewport-aware caching
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Health
Faculty of Science and Health > Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, School of
SWORD Depositor: Elements
Depositing User: Elements
Date Deposited: 04 Feb 2021 09:31
Last Modified: 03 Feb 2022 06:12

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