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Effectiveness of Lateral Auditory Collision Warnings: Should Warnings Be Toward Danger or Toward Safety?

Chen, Jing and Šabić, Edin and Mishler, Scott and Parker, Cody and Yamaguchi, Motonori (2022) 'Effectiveness of Lateral Auditory Collision Warnings: Should Warnings Be Toward Danger or Toward Safety?' Human Factors: the journal of the human factors and ergonomics society, 64 (2). pp. 418-435. ISSN 0018-7208 (In Press)

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Objective. The present study investigated the design of spatially oriented auditory collision warning signals to facilitate drivers’ responses to potential collisions. Background. Prior studies on collision warnings have mostly focused on manual driving. It is necessary to examine the design of collision warnings for safe take-over actions in semi-autonomous driving. Method. In a video-based semi-autonomous driving scenario, participants responded to pedestrians walking across the road, with a warning tone presented in either the avoidance direction or the collision direction. The time interval between the warning tone and the potential collision was also manipulated. In Experiment 1, pedestrians always started walking from one side of the road to the other side. In Experiment 2, pedestrians appeared in the middle of the road and walked toward either side of the road. Results. In Experiment 1, drivers reacted to the pedestrian faster with collision-direction warnings than with avoidance-direction warnings. In Experiment 2, the difference between the two warning directions became non-significant. In both experiments, shorter time intervals to potential collisions resulted in faster reactions but did not influence the effect of warning direction. Conclusion. The collision-direction warnings were advantageous over the avoidance-direction warnings only when they occurred at the same lateral location as the pedestrian, indicating that this advantage was due to the capture of attention by the auditory warning signals. Application. The present results indicate that drivers would benefit most when warnings occur at the side of potential collision objects rather than the direction of a desirable action during semi-autonomous driving.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: lateral collision warning; auditory warning; stimulus-response compatibility; semi-autonomous driving
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Health
Faculty of Science and Health > Psychology, Department of
SWORD Depositor: Elements
Depositing User: Elements
Date Deposited: 22 Jun 2020 12:15
Last Modified: 18 Mar 2022 21:59

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