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Spotlight on avian pathology: fowlpox virus

Giotis, Efstathios S and Skinner, Michael A (2019) 'Spotlight on avian pathology: fowlpox virus.' Avian Pathology, 48 (2). 87 - 90. ISSN 0307-9457

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Abstract

Fowlpox virus is the type species of an extensive and poorly-defined group of viruses isolated from more than 200 species of birds, together comprising the avipoxvirus genus of the poxvirus family. Long known as a significant poultry pathogen, vaccines developed in the early and middle years of the 20th century led to its effective eradication as a problem to commercial production in temperate climes in developed western countries (such that vaccination there is now far less common). Transmitted mechanically by biting insects, it remains problematic, causing significant losses to all forms of production (from back-yard, through extensive to intensive commercial flocks), in tropical climes where control of biting insects is difficult. In these regions, vaccination (via intra-dermal or subcutaneous, and increasingly in ovo, routes) remains necessary. Although there is no evidence that more than a single serotype exists, there are poorly-described reports of outbreaks in vaccinated flocks. Whether this is due to inadequate vaccination or penetrance of novel variants remains unclear. Some such outbreaks have been associated with strains carrying endogenous, infectious proviral copies of the retrovirus, reticulo-endotheliosis virus (REV), which might represent a pathotypic (if not newly emerging) variant in the field. Until more is known about the phylogenetic structure of the avipoxvirus genus (by more widespread genome sequencing of isolates from different species of birds) it remains difficult to ascertain the risk of novel avipoxviruses emerging from wild birds (and/or by recombination/mutation) to infect farmed poultry.

Item Type: Article
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Health > Life Sciences, School of
Depositing User: Elements
Date Deposited: 11 Jan 2021 12:21
Last Modified: 11 Jan 2021 12:21
URI: http://repository.essex.ac.uk/id/eprint/29427

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