Research Repository

‘Trade vs. Grant Dependency’ and Social Enterprise Performance: a Mediating Role of Learning Orientation

Bhattarai, Charan and Bhandari, Min (2022) '‘Trade vs. Grant Dependency’ and Social Enterprise Performance: a Mediating Role of Learning Orientation.' Journal of the International Council for Small Business, 3 (1). pp. 43-49. ISSN 2643-7015

Trade vs grant dependency and social enterprise performance A mediating role of learning orientation.pdf - Published Version
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives.

Download (720kB) | Preview


Pursuit of dual social and economic missions have created complicated dilemmas for social enterprises that whether they should rely more on non-profit (e.g., grant dependency) or for-profit (e.g., trade dependency) strategies. Utilising a sample of 164 UK social enterprises, this study found that relative to grant dependency, trade dependency has a more substantial positive direct effect on social performance. However, it has a more substantial positive indirect effect via learning orientation on economic and social performances. Therefore, this study concludes that social enterprise managers should prefer trade dependency to grant dependency to improve social performance. Nevertheless, they must promote and enhance learning culture and values (i.e., learning orientation) to concurrently improve, or at least not to deteriorate, their social enterprises’ economic performance. The findings of this study are crucial for policymakers as well to develop and implement policies and programs to support social enterprises.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Social enterprise performance; trade dependency; grant dependency; learning orientation
Divisions: Faculty of Social Sciences
Faculty of Social Sciences > Essex Business School
SWORD Depositor: Elements
Depositing User: Elements
Date Deposited: 07 Jan 2022 17:11
Last Modified: 11 Feb 2022 16:07

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item