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Appetite disinhibition rather than hunger explains genetic effects on adult BMI trajectory.

Brunner, Eric J and Maruyama, Koutatsu and Shipley, Martin and Cable, Noriko and Iso, Hiroyasu and Hiyoshi, Ayako and Stallone, Daryth and Kumari, Meena and Tabak, Adam and Singh-Manoux, Archana and Wilson, John and Langenberg, Claudia and Wareham, Nick and Boniface, David and Hingorani, Aroon and Kivimäki, Mika and Llewellyn, Clare (2021) 'Appetite disinhibition rather than hunger explains genetic effects on adult BMI trajectory.' International Journal of Obesity, 45 (4). pp. 758-765. ISSN 0307-0565

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Background The mediating role of eating behaviors in genetic susceptibility to weight gain during mid-adult life is not fully understood. This longitudinal study aims to help us understand contributions of genetic susceptibility and appetite to weight gain. Subjects/methods We followed the body-mass index (BMI) trajectories of 2464 adults from 45 to 65 years of age by measuring weight and height on four occasions at 5-year intervals. Genetic risk of obesity (gene risk score: GRS) was ascertained, comprising 92 BMI-associated single-nucleotide polymorphisms and split at a median (=high and low risk). At the baseline, the Eating Inventory was used to assess appetite-related traits of ‘disinhibition’, indicative of opportunistic eating or overeating and ‘hunger’ which is susceptibility to/ability to cope with the sensation of hunger. Roles of the GRS and two appetite-related scores for BMI trajectories were examined using a mixed model adjusted for the cohort effect and sex. Results Disinhibition was associated with higher BMI (β=2.96; 95% CI: 2.66–3.25kg/m²), and accounted for 34% of the genetically-linked BMI difference at age 45. Hunger was also associated with higher BMI (β=1.20; 0.82–1.59kg/m²) during mid-life and slightly steeper weight gain, but did not attenuate the effect of disinhibition. Conclusions Appetite disinhibition is most likely to be a defining characteristic of genetic susceptibility to obesity. High levels of appetite disinhibition, rather than hunger, may underlie genetic vulnerability to obesogenic environments in two-thirds of the population of European ancestry.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Humans; Obesity; Genetic Predisposition to Disease; Weight Gain; Body Mass Index; Linear Models; Longitudinal Studies; Feeding Behavior; Hunger; Appetite; Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide; Aged; Middle Aged; Female; Male; Inhibition, Psychological
Divisions: Faculty of Social Sciences
Faculty of Social Sciences > Institute for Social and Economic Research
SWORD Depositor: Elements
Depositing User: Elements
Date Deposited: 02 Sep 2021 15:44
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2022 07:25

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