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The Maudsley environmental risk score for psychosis

Vassos, Evangelos and Sham, Pak and Kempton, Matthew and Trotta, Antonella and Stilo, Simona A and Gayer-Anderson, Charlotte and Di Forti, Marta and Lewis, Cathryn M and Murray, Robin M and Morgan, Craig (2020) 'The Maudsley environmental risk score for psychosis.' Psychological Medicine, 50 (13). pp. 2213-2220. ISSN 0033-2917

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Background Risk prediction algorithms have long been used in health research and practice (e.g. prediction of cardiovascular disease and diabetes). However, similar tools have not been developed for mental health. For example, for psychotic disorders, attempts to sum environmental risk are rare, unsystematic and dictated by available data. In light of this, we sought to develop a valid, easy to use measure of the aggregate environmental risk score (ERS) for psychotic disorders. Methods We reviewed the literature to identify well-replicated and validated environmental risk factors for psychosis that combine a significant effect and large-enough prevalence. Pooled estimates of relative risks were taken from the largest available meta-analyses. We devised a method of scoring the level of exposure to each risk factor to estimate ERS. Relative risks were rounded as, due to the heterogeneity of the original studies, risk effects are imprecisely measured. Results Six risk factors (ethnic minority status, urbanicity, high paternal age, obstetric complications, cannabis use and childhood adversity) were used to generate the ERS. A distribution for different levels of risk based on simulated data showed that most of the population would be at low/moderate risk with a small minority at increased environmental risk for psychosis. Conclusions This is the first systematic approach to develop an aggregate measure of environmental risk for psychoses in asymptomatic individuals. This can be used as a continuous measure of liability to disease; mostly relevant to areas where the original studies took place. Its predictive ability will improve with the collection of additional, population-specific data.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Environment; liability; psychosis; risk prediction; schizophrenia
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Health
Faculty of Science and Health > Health and Social Care, School of
SWORD Depositor: Elements
Depositing User: Elements
Date Deposited: 24 Feb 2022 21:23
Last Modified: 18 Aug 2022 12:35

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