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Visual search in ADHD, ASD and ASD + ADHD: overlapping or dissociating disorders?

Seernani, D and Damania, K and Ioannou, C and Penkalla, N and Hill, H and Foulsham, Tom and Kingstone, A and Anderson, N and Boccignone, G and Bender, S and Smyrnis, N and Biscaldi, M and Ebner-Priemer, U and Klein, Christoph (2021) 'Visual search in ADHD, ASD and ASD + ADHD: overlapping or dissociating disorders?' European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30 (4). pp. 549-562. ISSN 1018-8827

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Recent debates in the literature discuss commonalities between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) at multiple levels of putative causal networks. This debate requires systematic comparisons between these disorders that have been studied in isolation in the past, employing potential markers of each disorder to be investigated in tandem. The present study, choose superior local processing, typical to ASD, and increased Intra-Subject Variability (ISV), typical to ADHD, for a head-to-head comparison of the two disorders, while also considering the comorbid cases. It directly examined groups of participants aged 10-13 years with ADHD, ASD with (ASD+) or without (ASD-) comorbid ADHD and a typically developing (TD) group (total N = 85). A visual search task consisting of an array of paired words was designed. The participants needed to find the specific pair of words, where the first word in the pair was the cue word. This visual search task was selected to compare these groups on overall search performance and trial-to-trial variability of search performance (i.e., ISV). Additionally, scanpath analysis was also carried out using Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA) and the Multi-Match Model. Results show that only the ASD- group exhibited superior search performance; whereas, only the groups with ADHD symptoms showed increased ISV. These findings point towards a double dissociation between ASD and ADHD, and argue against an overlap between ASD and ADHD.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Humans; Dissociative Disorders; Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity; Adolescent; Child; Female; Male; Autism Spectrum Disorder
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Health
Faculty of Science and Health > Psychology, Department of
SWORD Depositor: Elements
Depositing User: Elements
Date Deposited: 10 Dec 2021 13:21
Last Modified: 18 Aug 2022 10:28

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