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The Passage of H₂O₂ from Chloroplasts to Their Associated Nucleus during Retrograde Signalling: Reflections on the Role of the Nuclear Envelope.

Breeze, Emily and Mullineaux, Philip M (2022) 'The Passage of H₂O₂ from Chloroplasts to Their Associated Nucleus during Retrograde Signalling: Reflections on the Role of the Nuclear Envelope.' Plants, 11 (4). p. 552. ISSN 2223-7747

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The response of chloroplasts to adverse environmental cues, principally increases in light intensity, stimulates chloroplast-to-nucleus retrograde signalling, which leads to the induction of immediate protective responses and longer-term acclimation. Hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>), generated during photosynthesis, is proposed to both initiate and transduce a retrograde signal in response to photoinhibitory light intensities. Signalling specificity achieved by chloroplast-sourced H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> for signal transduction may be dependent upon the oft-observed close association of a proportion of these organelles with the nucleus. In this review, we consider more precisely the nature of the close association between a chloroplast appressed to the nucleus and the requirement for H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> to cross both the double membranes of the chloroplast and nuclear envelopes. Of particular relevance is that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has close physical contact with chloroplasts and is contiguous with the nuclear envelope. Therefore, the perinuclear space, which transducing H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> molecules would have to cross, may have an oxidising environment the same as the ER lumen. Based on studies in animal cells, the ER lumen may be a significant source of H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> in plant cells arising from the oxidative folding of proteins. If this is the case, then there is potential for the ER lumen/perinuclear space to be an important location to modify chloroplast-to-nucleus H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> signal transduction and thereby introduce modulation of it by additional different environmental cues. These would include for example, heat stress and pathogen infection, which induce the unfolded protein response characterised by an increased H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> level in the ER lumen.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: retrograde signalling; chloroplasts; nucleus; endoplasmic reticulum; hydrogen peroxide; nuclear envelope; peri-nuclear space; aquaporins; membrane contact sites; cytoskeleton; environmental stress
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Health
Faculty of Science and Health > Life Sciences, School of
SWORD Depositor: Elements
Depositing User: Elements
Date Deposited: 08 Mar 2022 17:18
Last Modified: 16 Mar 2022 15:53

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