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Cefotaxime Exposure Selects Mutations within the CA-Domain of envZ Which Promote Antibiotic Resistance but Repress Biofilm Formation in Salmonella

Trampari, Eleftheria and Zhang, Chuanzhen and Gotts, Kathryn and Savva, George and Bavro, Vassiliy and Webber, Mark (2022) 'Cefotaxime Exposure Selects Mutations within the CA-Domain of envZ Which Promote Antibiotic Resistance but Repress Biofilm Formation in Salmonella.' Microbiology Spectrum, 10 (3). e0214521-. ISSN 2165-0497

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Abstract

Cephalosporins are important beta lactam antibiotics, but resistance can be mediated by various mechanisms including production of beta lactamase enzymes, changes in membrane permeability or active efflux. We used an evolution model to study how Salmonella adapts to subinhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime in planktonic and biofilm conditions and characterized the mechanisms underpinning this adaptation. We found that Salmonella rapidly adapts to subinhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime via selection of multiple mutations within the CA-domain region of EnvZ. We showed that changes in this domain affect the ATPase activity of the enzyme and in turn impact OmpC, OmpF porin expression and hence membrane permeability leading to increased tolerance to cefotaxime and low-level resistance to different classes of antibiotics. Adaptation to cefotaxime through EnvZ also resulted in a significant cost to biofilm formation due to downregulation of curli. We assessed the role of the mutations identified on the activity of EnvZ by genetic characterization, biochemistry and in silico analysis and confirmed that they are responsible for the observed phenotypes. We observed that sublethal cefotaxime exposure selected for heterogeneity in populations with only a subpopulation carrying mutations within EnvZ and being resistant to cefotaxime. Population structure and composition dynamically changed depending on the presence of the selection pressure, once selected, resistant subpopulations were maintained even in extended passage without drug.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; biofilms; two component systems; evolution
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Health
Faculty of Science and Health > Life Sciences, School of
SWORD Depositor: Elements
Depositing User: Elements
Date Deposited: 27 Apr 2022 15:50
Last Modified: 02 Jul 2022 00:34
URI: http://repository.essex.ac.uk/id/eprint/32771

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