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A Blockchain Enhanced Coexistence of Heterogeneous Networks on Unlicensed Spectrum

Zhang, Hanwen and Leng, Supeng and Wei, Yunkai and He, Jianhua (2022) 'A Blockchain Enhanced Coexistence of Heterogeneous Networks on Unlicensed Spectrum.' IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, 71 (7). pp. 7613-7624. ISSN 0018-9545

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Abstract

Due to the forecasted fast increasing cellular traffic and the already highly congested licensed spectrum, it is critical to exploit and utilize the unlicensed spectrum resources for the fifth-generation (5G) and beyond networks. A challenging problem is the coexistence of 5G and other networks with fair, reliable, and efficient sharing of the unlicensed spectrum. In this paper, we propose a blockchain-enhanced distributed spectrum sharing scheme for coexisting multiple operators and multiple WiFi APs. We design a novel lightweight and efficient consensus mechanism, named Proof of Strategy (PoG). In this consensus mechanism, the problem of spectrum sharing is used as a consensus puzzle, and the part of the unlicensed spectrum is used as the ‘fee’ of miners. With such a design, the computing overhead of the consensus process is expected to be reduced significantly. We develop a non-cooperative game to analyze the behavior of the miners and obtain a symmetric Bayesian Nash equilibrium under the uniform distribution of mining cost estimation. It can be found mathematically and experimentally that the strategy of the winner tends to maximize the system revenue by sharing the unlicensed spectrum resource. Furthermore, to reduce the impact of heavy interactions on system throughput, the operation of WiFi APs in the proposed scheme can be adaptively switched between ‘contention mode’ and ‘blockchain mode’ according to the network traffic load. The dynamic behavior is constructed as an evolutionary game, and the existence and uniqueness of equilibrium points are proved by theoretical analysis. Simulations demonstrated the fairness and effectiveness of the proposed blockchain-based scheme and the mode switching method for distributed spectrum sharing by heterogeneous wireless networks.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Blockchain; Spectrum Sharing; Unlicensed Spectrum
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Health
Faculty of Science and Health > Computer Science and Electronic Engineering, School of
SWORD Depositor: Elements
Depositing User: Elements
Date Deposited: 24 May 2022 12:39
Last Modified: 24 Jul 2022 17:02
URI: http://repository.essex.ac.uk/id/eprint/32846

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