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The Heimschaffungsaktion of 1942-43: Turkey, Spain and Portugal and their Responses to the German Offer of Repatriation of their Jewish Citizens

Schulze, R (2012) 'The Heimschaffungsaktion of 1942-43: Turkey, Spain and Portugal and their Responses to the German Offer of Repatriation of their Jewish Citizens.' Holocaust Studies: A Journal of Culture and History, 18 (2-3). 49 - 72. ISSN 1359-1371

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Abstract

This essay focuses on the position of the governments of the neutral countries and the countries allied with Nazi Germany towards their Jewish citizens in German hands, providing additional context to the question of the ability and willingness of governments to shape attitudes and responses to the Nazi persecution and extermination of the Jews. It discusses one pivotal moment, the so-called Heimschaffungsaktion, or repatriation ultimatum, of 1942-43, and assesses the response of three of the ten countries involved: Turkey, Spain and Portugal. All three countries could have saved more Jews from extermination if they had acted more swiftly and in a less restrictive manner. Failure to push for the release of as many Jews as possible was not only due to the fact that antisemitism was prevalent across Europe, but has to be seen in the context of policies of ethnic homogenisation that most governments, especially right-wing authoritarian regimes, pursued in this period.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: D History General and Old World > D History (General) > D731 World War II
Divisions: Faculty of Humanities > History, Department of
Depositing User: Jim Jamieson
Date Deposited: 27 Jun 2013 13:00
Last Modified: 17 Aug 2017 17:59
URI: http://repository.essex.ac.uk/id/eprint/7017

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