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Nitrogen dioxide and household fuel use in the Pakistan

Colbeck, Ian and Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad and Ali, Zulfiqar and Ahmad, Shakil (2010) 'Nitrogen dioxide and household fuel use in the Pakistan.' Science of The Total Environment, 409 (2). pp. 357-363. ISSN 0048-9697

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More than half the world's population use biomass fuels as a household energy source and, hence, face significant exposure to a number of air pollutants. In Pakistan about 90% of rural households and 22% of urban households use biomass fuels. In order to assess the levels of NO2 in the residential micro-environment, two sampling campaigns were carried out at different times of the year (summer and winter) at an urban and two rural sites during 2005 and 2007. Rural site I used biomass fuels while natural gas was utilized at rural site II and the urban site. In winter NO2 concentrations at all three sites were higher in the kitchens than living rooms and outdoors. ANOVA showed that, although, there was a significant difference among NO2 concentrations in the kitchens, living rooms and courtyards, at all the three sites, there was no significant different between kitchens using biomass fuels and natural gas. During the summer NO2 levels fell sharply at both rural sites (from 256μg/m3 and 242μg/m3 to 51μg/m3 and 81μg/m3). However at the urban site the mean levels were slightly higher in summer (234μg/m3) than in winter (218μg/m3). The considerable seasonal variation at the rural sites was due to a shift of indoor kitchens to open outdoor kitchens at rural site I and more ventilation at rural site II during summer. There was no significant difference between kitchens using biomass (site I) or natural gas (site II), however the kitchens at rural site II and urban site showed a significant difference. Overall fuel selection showed no significant effect on NO2 levels. However the NO2 concentrations may pose a significant threat to the health of people, especially women and children. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Nitrogen dioxide; Biomass; Natural gas; Pakistan
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Science and Health
Faculty of Science and Health > Life Sciences, School of
SWORD Depositor: Elements
Depositing User: Elements
Date Deposited: 15 Sep 2011 12:33
Last Modified: 15 Jan 2022 00:21

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