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Investigating the possible causal association of smoking with depression and anxiety using Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis: The CARTA consortium

Taylor, AE and Fluharty, ME and Bjørngaard, JH and Gabrielsen, ME and Skorpen, F and Marioni, RE and Campbell, A and Engmann, J and Mirza, SS and Loukola, A and Laatikainen, T and Partonen, T and Kaakinen, M and Ducci, F and Cavadino, A and Husemoen, LLN and Ahluwalia, TS and Jacobsen, RK and Skaaby, T and Ebstrup, JF and Mortensen, EL and Minica, CC and Vink, JM and Willemsen, G and Marques-Vidal, P and Dale, CE and Amuzu, A and Lennon, LT and Lahti, J and Palotie, A and Räikkönen, K and Wong, A and Paternoster, L and Wong, APY and Horwood, LJ and Murphy, M and Johnstone, EC and Kennedy, MA and Pausova, Z and Paus, T and Ben-Shlomo, Y and Nohr, EA and Kuh, D and Kivimaki, M and Eriksson, JG and Morris, RW and Casas, JP and Preisig, M and Boomsma, DI and Linneberg, A and Power, C and Hyppönen, E and Veijola, J and Jarvelin, MR and Korhonen, T and Tiemeier, H and Kumari, M and Porteous, DJ and Hayward, C and Romundstad, PR and Smith, GD and Munafò, MR (2014) 'Investigating the possible causal association of smoking with depression and anxiety using Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis: The CARTA consortium.' BMJ Open, 4 (10). ISSN 2044-6055

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Abstract

© 2014, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved. Objectives: To investigate whether associations of smoking with depression and anxiety are likely to be causal, using a Mendelian randomisation approach. Design: Mendelian randomisation meta-analyses using a genetic variant (rs16969968/rs1051730) as a proxy for smoking heaviness, and observational meta-analyses of the associations of smoking status and smoking heaviness with depression, anxiety and psychological distress. Participants: Current, former and never smokers of European ancestry aged ≥16 years from 25 studies in the Consortium for Causal Analysis Research in Tobacco and Alcohol (CARTA). Primary outcome measures: Binary definitions of depression, anxiety and psychological distress assessed by clinical interview, symptom scales or self-reported recall of clinician diagnosis. Results: The analytic sample included up to 58 176 never smokers, 37 428 former smokers and 32 028 current smokers (total N=127 632). In observational analyses, current smokers had 1.85 times greater odds of depression (95% CI 1.65 to 2.07), 1.71 times greater odds of anxiety (95% CI 1.54 to 1.90) and 1.69 times greater odds of psychological distress (95% CI 1.56 to 1.83) than never smokers. Former smokers also had greater odds of depression, anxiety and psychological distress than never smokers. There was evidence for positive associations of smoking heaviness with depression, anxiety and psychological distress (ORs per cigarette per day: 1.03 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.04), 1.03 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.04) and 1.02 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.03) respectively). In Mendelian randomisation analyses, there was no strong evidence that the minor allele of rs16969968/rs1051730 was associated with depression (OR=1.00, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.05), anxiety (OR=1.02, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.07) or psychological distress (OR=1.02, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.06) in current smokers. Results were similar for former smokers. Conclusions: Findings from Mendelian randomisation analyses do not support a causal role of smoking heaviness in the development of depression and anxiety.

Item Type: Article
Subjects: H Social Sciences > H Social Sciences (General)
R Medicine > R Medicine (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Social Sciences > Institute for Social and Economic Research
Depositing User: Jim Jamieson
Date Deposited: 06 Feb 2015 13:49
Last Modified: 23 Jan 2019 01:15
URI: http://repository.essex.ac.uk/id/eprint/12669

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